What is trauma?
In general, trauma can be defined as a psychological, emotional response to an event or an experience that is deeply distressing or disturbing. When loosely applied, this trauma definition can refer to something upsetting, such as being involved in an accident, having an illness or injury, losing a loved one, or going through a divorce. However, it can also encompass the far extreme and include experiences that are severely damaging, such as rape, war, or torture.
Relational trauma, as defined by Laurel Parnell, in her book Attachment-Focused EMDR, 2013 is trauma that occurs in the context of a relationship--either something that happened (e.g. abuse) or did not happen (e.g. neglect, whether benign or otherwise) to the client that has caused him or her harm.
What is EMDR?
The mind can often heal itself naturally, in the same way as the body does. Much of this natural coping mechanism occurs during sleep, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Francine Shapiro, a researcher from Stanford University, developed Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in 1987, utilizing this natural process in order to successfully treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Since then, EMDR has been used to effectively treat a wide range of mental health issues.
What happens when you are traumatized?
Most of the time your body routinely manages new information and experiences without you being aware of it. However, when something out of the ordinary occurs and you are traumatized by an overwhelming event (e.g.a car accident) or by being repeatedly subjected to distress (e.g. bullying or childhood neglect), your natural coping mechanism can become overloaded. This overloading can result in disturbing experiences remaining frozen in your brain or "unprocessed". Such unprocessed memories and feelings are stored in the limbic system of your brain in a "raw" and emotional form, rather than in a verbal "story" mode. This limbic system maintains traumatic memories in an isolated memory network that is associated with emotions and physical sensations, and which are disconnected from the brain's cortex where we use language to store memories. The limbic system's traumatic memories can be continually triggered when you experience events similar to the difficult experiences you have been through. Often the memory itself is long forgotten, but the painful feelings such as anxiety, panic, anger or despair are continually triggered in the present. Your ability to live in the present and learn from new experiences can therefore become compromised. EMDR helps create the connections between your brain's memory networks, enabling your brain to process the traumatic memory in a very natural way, rather than becoming re-traumatized by simply talking about the memory.
What is an EMDR session like?
EMDR utilizes the natural healing ability of your body. After a thorough assessment, you will be asked specific questions about a particular disturbing memory. Eye movements, similar to those that happen during REM sleep, will be recreated simply by asking you to watch the therapist's finger moving backward and forward across your visual field. Sometimes, a bar of moving lights or a pair of "tappers" (pulsers held in each hand as they gently vibrate back and forth) will be used. All of the above are examples of Bilateral Stimulation (BLS) that activate the body's natural healing mechanisms. The BLS will last for a short while and then stop. You will then be asked to report back on the experiences you have had during each of these sets of eye movements or tapping. Experiences during a session may include changes in thoughts, images and feelings.
With repeated sets of eye movements, or another form of BLS, the memory tends to change in such a way that it loses its painful intensity and simply becomes a more neutral memory of an event in the past. Other associated memories may also heal at the same time. This linking of related memories can lead to a dramatic and rapid improvement in many aspects of your life.
What can EMDR be used for?
In addition to its use for the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, EMDR has been successfully used to treat:
- anxiety and panic attacks
- sleep problems
- complicated grief
- pain relief, phantom limb pain
- self-esteem and performance anxiety
- and more...
Can anyone benefit from EMDR?
EMDR can accelerate therapy by resolving the impact of your past traumas and allowing you to live more fully in the present. It is not, however, appropriate for everyone. The process is rapid, and any disturbing experiences, if they occur at all, last for a comparatively short period of time. Nevertheless, you need to be aware of, and willing to experience, the strong feelings and disturbing thoughts which sometimes occur during sessions.
How long does treatment take?
EMDR can be brief focused treatment, such as for a single- incident trauma, or part of a longer psychotherapy treatment plan. EMDR sessions can last for 60-90 minutes.
Will I remain in control and empowered?l
During EMDR treatment, you will remain in control, fully alert, and wide awake This is not a form of hypnosis and you can stop the process at any time. Throughout the session, the therapist will support and facilitate your own self-healing and intervene as little as possible. Reprocessing is usually experienced as something that happens spontaneously, and new connections and insights are felt to arise quite naturally from within. As a result, most people experience EMDR as being a natural and very empowering therapy modality.
What evidence is there that EMDR is a successful treatment?
EMDR is an innovative clinical treatment which has successfully helped over a million individuals. The validity and reliability of EMDR has been established by rigorous research. There are now nineteen controlled studies into EMDR, making it the most thoroughly researched method used in the treatment of trauma, (details on www.emdr-europe.org and www.emdr.org). It is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as an effective treatment for PTSD.
Adapted from www.thetraumacentre.com
I completed both EMDR Part 1 and Part 2 in 2013, which constitutes full Basic Training, and have completed numerous advanced trauma training,in addition to 20+ hours of consultation since then. Full certification is pending; I expect to be fully certified by the end of summer 2019.